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Languages: original language names in their own scripts

Sources and contributors:

Notes:
The codes in the "MGlang" column are connected to explanation pages that contain translations of the language name in many languages and other additional information. Where (*) appears, it means a dictionary Language->Glyphs already exists.

The list is still incomplete and needs your contributions/corrections.

If you know and if you can, please send the language name in its original form and script (using Unicode-UTF8 encoding) and also mention the most common character encoding used for that language (e.g. ISO-8859-2). If you know it, please send also the phonetic transcription using International Phonetic Alphabet.

The list (including additional information) is also available as parsable tab-delimited text format.

Latest additions or corrections: c.tok

MGlang Original name IPA English Français Country Common Encoding
M-G (*) opilkipan pilkin Mediaglyphic | Mediaglyphs mediaglyphique UTF-8
aar (*) ʿAfár | Qafar   Afar afar ET
abk (*) аҧсуа бызшәа | Абхазо abxazo Abkhazian abkhaze GE ISO-8859-5
abq (*) абаза бызшва   Abaza | Abazin | Ashuwa RU
abv البَحْرينيَة ạlbaḥ̊rynyaẗ Arabic (Baharna) arabe BH ISO-8859-6
ace     Achinese aceh ID
acf     Saint Lucian Creole French LC
ach     Acoli acoli UG
acm   Arabic, Mesopotamian spoken (Iraq) arabe (Iraq) IQ ISO-8859-6
ada adangbɛ   Adangme | Dangme adangme GH
ady (*) адыгэбзэ   Adyghe | Adygei adyghé | adyghéen RU
aeb   Arabic, Tunisinian spoken (Tunisia) arabe (Tunisie) TN ISO-8859-6
aec   Arabic, Saidi spoken (Egypt) arabe - saidi (Égypte) EG ISO-8859-6
afr (*) Afrikaans   Afrikaans | Taal | South African Dutch afrikaans ZA
ahk Aˬkaˬ   Akha akha MM
ain アイヌ イタク   Ainu aïnou JP
ajp ạ̉nā mā baḥ̊kī falasaṭ̊ynī Arabic - South Levantine (Jordan, Palestine, Syria) arabe JO ISO-8859-6
aju     Judeo-Moroccan arabic (Israel & Morocco) | Judeo-Arabic judéo-marocain arabe | judéo-arabe IL ISO-8859-6
aka twi | akana   Akan (with dialects Fanti & Twi) | Fanti | Twi fanti | akan | twi GH
akz     Alabama US
ale Unangam tunuu   Aleut aléoute US
aln (*) Shqipe | Shqip | gjuha shqipe ʃcip Albanian albanais AL ISO-8859-2
alt (*) алтай тил   Altai | Altay | Southern Altai altaïques | altaï méridional | altaï du Sud RU
amh (*) አማርኛ ʿēmarīnya Amharic amharique ET UTF-8
anp     Angika IN
apc   Arabic - North Levantine (Syria, Israel, Lebanon) arabe SY ISO-8859-6
apd   Arabic, Sudanese spoken (Sudan) arabe (sudan) SD ISO-8859-6
apw Ndéé   Apache western | Coyotero apache Coyotero US
arb (*) العربية | اللغة العربية ɛlʕrabija Arabic, standard | Arabic | Arabic language arabe ISO-8859-6
arg (*) aragonés   Aragonese aragonais ES
arn Araucano   Araucanian araucan | araukan CL
arp Hinono'eitiit   Arapaho arapaho US
arq   Arabic, Algerian spoken (Algeria) arabe (Algérie) DZ ISO-8859-6
ars   Arabic, Najdi spoken (Saudi Arabia) arabe (Arabie saoudite) SA ISO-8859-6
arw     Arawak arawak SR
ary   Arabic, Moroccan spoken (Morocco) arabe (Maroc) MA ISO-8859-6
arz   Arabic, Egyptian spoken (Egypt) arabe-égyptien (Égypte) EG ISO-8859-6
asm (*) অসিময়া | অসমীয়া | অসমীয়া   Assamese assamais IN UTF-8
ast (*) Asturianu   Asturiana | Bable asturien | bable | asturien ES
auv     Auvergnat FR
ava (*) авар мацІ | магIарул мацI   Avaric avar RU
ave     Avestan avestique IR
awa     Awadhi awadhi IN
ayl   Arabic - Libyan spoken (Libya, Egypt) arabe (Libya, Egypt) LY ISO-8859-6
ayn   Arabic, Sanaani spoken (Yemen) arabe - sanaani (Yémen) YE ISO-8859-6
ayr Aymará | aymar aru   Aymara aymara BO
azb (*) Azərbaycani | Azəri Türkçəs | азәри | Азәрбајҹани ɑːzɛrbɑːjʤɑːnɪ | azəri Azeri | Azerbaijani, south (Iran) azéri IR UTF-8
azj (*) Azərbaycani | Azəri Türkçəs | азәри | Азәрбајҹани | азәрбајҹанҹа | Азәрбајҹан ɑːzɛrbɑːjʤɑːnɪ | azəri Azeri | Azerbaijani, north (Azerbaijan) azéri AZ UTF-8
bak (*) башҡортса | башҡорт теле   Bashkir bachkir RU
bam (*) Bamanankan   Bambara bambara ML
ban basa Bali   Balinese balinais ID
bas     Basa basa | bassa CM
bbc     Batak Toba (Indonesia-Sumatra) batak toba (Indonésie-Sumatra) ID
bbl ბაცბა   Bats GE UTF-8
bcc بلچي   Baluchi | southern Baluchi baloutchi, sud | baloutchi PK
bcl     Bikol bikol PH
bej ﺏﺩﺍﻮﻳﺓ   Beja bedja SD
bel (*) Беларуски | Беларуская мова bjɛlarʊski Belorusian | Byelorussian | Belarusian biélorusse BY ISO-8859-5
bem chiBemba | ichiBemba   Bemba bemba ZM
ben (*) বাংলা baɛṅlā Bengali bengali BD
bgc     Haryanvi | Bangri (India) haryanvi IN
bgn بلچي   Baluchi, western baloutchi, ouest PK
bgp بلچي   Baluchi, eastern baloutchi, est PK
bgq     Rajasthani | Bagri (India - Pakistan) rajasthani - bagri IN
bhb     Bhili IN
bho भोजपुरी   Bhojpuri (bihari) bihari | bhojpurî | bhojpuri IN
bin     Bini bini NG
bis (*) Bislama   Bislama bichlamar | bichelamar | bislama VU
bku ᝊᝓᝑᝒᝇ   Buhid PH
bla ᑯᖾᖹ |  ᖿᐟᖻᐟ |  ᓱᖽᐧᖿ   Siksika blackfoot | pieds-noirs CA
bod (*) བོད་སྐད་ | བོད་ཡིག | བོད་སྐད་   Tibetan tibétain CN UTF-8
bos (*) Bošnjački | Bosanski bosanski Bosnian bosniaque BA ISO-8859-2
bpd     Banda, Banda banda, Banda CF
bra     Braj braj IN
bre (*) ar Brezhoneg ʌrbrɛzɒnɛg Breton breton FR
brx     Bodo IN
bsq     Bassa LR
btb     Beti CM
btd Batak Dairi   Batak Dairi (Indonesia-Sumatra) batak dairi (Indonésie-Sumatra) ID
bts Batak Simalungun   Batak Simalungun (Indonesia-Sumatra) batak simalungun (Indonésie-Sumatra) ID
bug ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ   Buginese bugi | bouguis ID
bul (*) Български | български език bəlgarski Bulgarian bulgare BG WINDOWS-1251
bxr (*) буряад хэлэн   Buriat | Buryat bouriate RU
byn (*) ብሊን   Blin | Bilen blin, bilen | blin ER
c.adu     Adûnaic | Númenórean UTF-8
c.afh El-Afrihili   Afrihili afrihili UTF-8
c.bli     Bliss symbols UTF-8
c.bzt     Brithenig
c.eur     Europanto UTF-8
c.ido     Ido ido UTF-8
c.igs     Interglossa UTF-8
c.jbo lojban   Lojban lojban UTF-8
c.qya     Quenya | High-Elven UTF-8
c.sjn     Sindarin | Gray-Elven UTF-8
c.slo (*) Slovio | Slovio mezxunarodju jazika   Slovio
c.tlh     Klingon klingon UTF-8
c.tok (*) toki pona   Toki Pona UTF-8
c.vol (*) Volapük   Volapük volapük ISO-8859-1
c.wdk Wenedyk   Venedic UTF-8
cad     Caddo caddo US
car     Carib caribe VE
cat (*) Català kataˈla Catalan catalan ES ISO-8859-1
cay Goyogo̱hó:nǫ’   Cayuga CA
cch     Atsam | Cawai NG
ccx Saw cuengh | Saɯ cueŋƅ   Zhuang, northern (yongbei, youjiang, hongshuihe..) zhuang CN
ccy     Zhuang, southern (yongnan, zuojiang, dejing) zhuang, sud CN
ceb (*) Sinugboanon | Sugboanon | Bisayocebuano   Cebuano cebuano PH
ces (*) Čeština | Česky ˈtʃɛʃtina | ˈtʃɛski Czech tchèque CZ ISO-8859-2
cgg     Chiga | Kiga KE
cha Chamoru   Chamorro chamorro GU
chb     Chibcha chibcha CO
che (*) Нохчийн | Нохчийн мотт | noxУЇiyn mott   Chechen tchétchène RU ISO-8859-5
chg جغتای   Chagatai djaghataï | jagataic | tchaghataï TM
chk Chuk   Chuukese chuuk FM
chn Chinook Wawa   Chinook jargon chinook, jargon CA
cho Chahta Anumpa   Choctaw choctaw US
chp ᑌᓀᓲᒢᕄᓀ | Dëne Sųłiné   Chipewyan chipewyan CA
chr (*) ᏣᎳᎩ calagi Cherokee cherokee US
chu (*) ѩзыкъ словѣньскъ   Church Slavic | Old Church Slavonic | Old Church Slavic | Old Bulgarian slavon d'église RU
chv (*) чӑваш чӗлхи   Chuvash tchouvache RU UTF-8
chy Tsétsêhéstâhese | Tsitsistas | Etsėhesenestse | Tsêhést   Cheyenne cheyenne US ISO-8859-1
cit     Chittagonian (Bangladesh) chittagonian BD
ciw ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ | ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯᒧᐏᐣ | ᐅᒋᐺᒧᐎᓐ   Ojibwa, Chippewa ojibwa chippewa US
cjk     Chokwe CD
cjy     Chinese, JinYu (Shanxi, Henan provinces) chinois, jinyu CN
ckb (*) كوردي | kurdî | Kurdí | کوردی | к’öрди   Kurdish | Kurdi | Sorani (central, Irak) kurde, iraq IQ UTF-8
ckt     Chukot | Chukchi RU
clm     Clallam US
cmn (*) 简体中文 | 普通话 tɕiɛn213t‘i213tʂɷŋ55wən35 | p‘u213t‘ɷŋ55xua52 Mandarin Chinese | Chinese (simplified characters) chinois mandarin CN GB2312
cmn.t (*) 繁體中文 | 國語 fan35t‘i213tʂɷŋ55wən35 | kuo35y213 Mandarin Chinese, traditional characters chinois mandarin (Taiwan) TW BIG5
com numu tekwapu   Comanche US
cop μετν̀ρεμν̀χημι   Coptic copte EG
cop.boh (*)     Bohairic Coptic EG
cop.sah     Sahidic Coptic EG
cor (*) Kernewek | Kernowek | Kernuak | Curnoack kɛ̥ɾnɛ̥wɛ̥k Cornish cornique GB
cos (*) Corsu ˈkɔrsu Corsican corse FR
crh (*) Къырым татар   Crimean Turkish | Crimean Tatar tatar de Crimée | turc de Crimée | turc de Crimée, tatar de Crimée UZ
crj ᓀᐦᔭᐤ | ᓂᐦᔭᐘᒃ | ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ neːhijaw Cree cri | cree CA
crs     Seselwa | Seychelles Creole French Seychellois Creole SC
csb (*) kaszëbsczi jãzëk   Kashubian kachoube | cashubian PL
cym (*) Cymraeg | Y Gymraeg kəmraɪ̵̭g Welsh gallois GB
dak     Dakota dakota US
dan (*) Dansk dænsk Danish danois DK ISO-8859-1
dar дарган мез   Dargwa | Dargin dargwa RU
dcc     Deccan | Desi | Dekini (India) deccan IN
ddo цез мец   Dido | Tsez RU
deu (*) Deutsch | Deutsche dɔɪtʃ German | High German allemand DE ISO-8859-1
deu-ch   dɔɪtʃ Swiss German CH ISO-8859-1
dgo डोगरी   Dogri | Himachali-Dogri dogri | himachali | dogra IN
dgr     Dogrib dogrib | dogrib, tlicho | dogrib CA
dik Thuɔŋjäŋ   Dinka | Rek (Sudan) dinka SD
diq (*)     Zazaki | Dimli | Dimili | Zaza TR
div (*) ދިވެހި | ދިވެހިބަސް divehi | divehibas Dhivehi | Maldivian | Divehi maldivien | divehi MV UTF-8
dje (*)     Zarma | Dyarma NE
dlg     Dolgan RU
dng хуэйзў йүян | лохуэй   Dungan KG
dsb (*) dolnoserbski   Dolnoserbski | Sorbian (lower) bas-sorabe DE
dua     Duala douala CM
dyu     Dyula dioula BF
dzo (*) རྫོང་ཁ   Dzongkha dzongkha BT
efi     Efik efik NG
eka     Ekajuk ekajuk NG
ell (*) Ελληνικά | Ἑλληνικά ɛliniˈka Greek | Modern Greek | Hellenic grec GR ISO-8859-7
ell.dhi     Dhimotiki | Dhimotiki Greek (spoken literary official dialect) GR ISO-8859-7
ell.kat (*)     Katharevousa | Katharevousa Greek (arcaic literary dialect) GR ISO-8859-7
eml emiliân e rumagnōl   Emiliano-Romagnolo | Emilian IT UTF-8
eng (*) English ˈiŋglɪʃ English anglais GB UTF-8
eng-gb British English ˈbritɪʃ ˈiŋglɪʃ British English anglais d'Angleterre | anglais britannique GB UTF-8
eng-us (*) American English əˈmɛrɪkən ˈiŋglɪʃ American English | American language | American anglais américain US UTF-8
epo (*) Esperanto | La lingvo internacia ɛspɛˈrantɔ Esperanto espéranto ISO-8859-3
esk Inupiatun   Inupiaq | Inupiatun, northwest alaskan (Inuit) inupiaq US
est (*) Eesti | Eesti keel ˈeːsti Estonian estonien EE ISO-8859-4
eus (*) Euskara eus̺keɾa Basque basque ES
eve     Even RU
evn     Evenki CN
ewe Ɛʋɛ | Éwé | Eʋegbe   Ewe éwé GH ISO-8859-1
ewo Ewondo   Ewondo éwondo CM
fan     Fang fang GA
fao (*) Føroyskt | Føroyska   Faroese féroïen | féringien DK ISO-8859-1
ffm     Fulah | Maasina (Mali) peul, maasina ML
fij (*) Vakaviti | vosa Vakaviti   Fijian fidjien FJ
fil Filipino   Filipino | Pilipino pilipino | filipino PH
fin (*) Suomi | suomen kieli suomi Finnish | Suomi finnois FI ISO-8859-1
fkv     Kven NO
fon fongbe | fɔngbè   Fon | Fogbe fon BJ
fra (*) Français frɑ̃ˈsɛː French Français FR ISO-8859-1
fra.gnf Dgèrnésiais   Guernsey Norman French
fra.jrs (*)     Jerriais | (French dialect in Jersey/Jèrri, Channel islands) Jèrriais
fra.nrm (*)     Norman (Normandy) normand FR
fra.poi     Poitevin FR
fri (*) Frysk   Frisian (Western) frison NL ISO-8859-1
frp (*)     Franco-Provençal IT ISO-8859-1
frr (*) Noordfreesk | Nordfrasch | Nordfriisk | Nuurdfresk | Nuurdfriisk   Frisian (Northern) DE
fub     Fulah | Adamawa (Cameroon) peul, adamawa CM
fuc     Fulah | Pulaar (Senegal) peul, pulaar SN
fuf     Fulah | Fuuta jalon (Guinea) peul, fuuta jalon GN
fur (*) Furlan | marilenghe   Friulian frioulan IT ISO-8859-1
fuv Fulfulde   Fulah | Fulfulde (Nigeria) peul | fulfulde NG
gaa   Ga ga GH
gag     Gagauz MD
gan     Chinese, Gan (Jianxi, Hubei..) chinois, gan CN
gax Oromoo   Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji | Afan galla | afan ET
gay     Gayo gayo ID
gaz (*) Oromoo   Oromo, west-central | Galla galla | oromo ET
gbm     Garhwali (Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh) IN
gbo     Grebo | Grebo, north (Liberia) grebo, nord | grébo | grebo LR
gcf Kreyòl   Guadeloupean Creole French français des Guadaloupe GP
gez (*) ግዕዝኛ   Geez guèze ET
gil Ikiribati | Kiribati | taetae ni Kiribati   Gilbertese kiribati | gilbertin | gilbertais KI
gkp     Kpelle, Guinea kpellé, guinea GN
gla (*) Gàidhlig | Gàidhlig na h-Alba | a' Ghàidhlig g̊aːʎik Scottish Gaelic ecossais gaélique | gaélique écossais GB ISO-8859-14
gld     Nanai RU
gle (*) Gaeilge | Gaeilge na hÉireann | Gaedhlaing | Gaolainn | Gaedhilge   Irish Gaelic | Irish irlandais IE ISO-8859-14
glg (*) Galego galɛgo Galician galicien ES ISO-8859-3
glv (*) Gaelg | Gaelg Vannin | Gailck | Vanninagh | Yn Ghaelg | Y Ghailck   Manx manx | mannois GB ISO-8859-14
gno     Gondi, north gond | gondî | gondi IN
gor     Gorontalo gorontalo ID
got 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌰𐍂𐌰𐌶𐌳𐌰   Gothic gothique | gotique UA
grc     Ancient Greek | Ancient Greek (to 1453) grec ancien (jusqu'à 1453) GR UTF-8
gsc (*)     Gascon Provençal provençal gascogne FR
gsw     Alemannisch | Alsatian | Swiss German Alsacien | Alsatian | Alemannic CH
gug Avañe'ẽ   Guarani guarani PY
guj (*) ગુજરાતી guʤərati Gujarati goudjrati | goudjarâtî | gujarâtî IN
gux     Gourma | Gurma | Gourmancema BF
guz     Gusii | Kisii KE
gwi     Gwich´in | Gwichʼin gwichʼin CA
gxx Kru   Kru, Wè | wobé (Ivory coast) | Kru krou, Wè | wobé (Côte d'Ivoire) | krou CI
gya     Gbaya, northwest (central african R.) gbaya du nord-ouest CF
hae Oromoo   Oromo, eastern | Qotu galla | qotu de l'est ET
hak 客家话 | 𠊎话   Chinese, Hakka | Hokka | Xinminhua (Guandong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, Sichuan) chinois, hakka CN GB2312
hat (*) kreyòl ayisyen   Haitian | Haitian Creole French français d'Haïti | haïtien HT
hau (*) هَوُسَ | حَوْسَ   Hausa haoussa NG ISO-8859-6
haw (*) ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi oːlelo hawaiʔi Hawaiian hawaïen US
hbo   Ancient Hebrew IL ISO-8859-8
hch     Huichol MX
hdn Xaad Kil | Xaat Kíl   Haida | Masset, north haida masset | haïda | haida CA
hea Kuv tsis has lug Moob tau   Hmong hmong CN
heb (*) עברית | עִבְרִית ivʁit Hebrew | Ivrit hébreu IL ISO-8859-8
her otshiherero | otjiherero   Herero herero | héréro NA
hil Ilongo   Hiligaynon hiligaynon | ilonggo PH
hin (*) हिनदी | हिन्दी ɦiːndiː Hindi hindi | hindî IN
hmo Hiri Motu   Hiri Motu hiri motu PG
hne     Chhattisgarhi | Laria | Khaltahi (India) chhattisgarhi IN
hrv (*) Hrvatski hrvatski Croatian croate HR ISO-8859-2
hsb (*) hornjoserbsce   Sorbian (upper) | Upper Sorbian haut-sorabe DE
hsn     Chinese, Xiang | Hunanese (Hunan, Sichuan) chinois, xiang CN
hun (*) Magyar | Magyar nyelv ˈmɑɟɑr Hungarian | Magyar hongrois HU ISO-8859-2
hup     Hupa hupa US
hye (*) Հայերէն | Հայերեն լեզու hajeɹen Armenian | Armenian language arménien AM
iba     Iban iban MY
ibo (*) Igbo   Igbo igbo NG
iii ꆇꉙ   Yi | Sichuan Yi yi de Sichuan CN
ijc     Ijo ijo NG
ike (*) ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ | ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ inuktitut Inuktitut | eastern canadian eskimo (Inuit) inuktitut CA
ilo Ilokano   Iloko | Ilocano ilocano | ilokano PH
ina (*) Interlingua | Interlingua de Iala   Interlingua interlingue
ind (*) Bahasa Indonesia   Indonesian | Bahasa Indonesia indonésien ID UTF-8
inh ГІалгІай | гӀалгӀайн мотт   Ingush (Chechen Ingushetia) ingouche RU UTF-8
isl (*) Íslenska | Íslenzku iislɛnzkʏ Icelandic islandais IS ISO-8859-1
ita (*) Italiano itaˈljaːnɔ Italian italien IT ISO-8859-1
ium anh-mienh   Mien mien CN
jav (*) basa Jawa   Javanese javanais ID
jpn (*) 日本語 nihongo | nip.pongo Japanese japonais JP EUC-JP
jpr     Judeo-Persian judéo-persan IL
kaa (*) ҝараҝалпаҝ | қарақалпақ тили   Kara-Kalpak karakalpak UZ
kab (*) Taqbaylit | ثاقبايليث   Kabyle kabyle DZ
kac Kachin   Kachin kachin | jinghpo MM
kaj     Jju NG
kal (*) Kalaallisut | kalaallit oqaasii   Kalaallisut (Inuit) groenlandais | kalaallisut GL ISO-8859-10
kam     Kamba kamba KE
kan (*) ಕನ್ನಡ | ಕನ್ನಡ kʌnnʌɖʌ Kannada kannada | kannara IN
kas (*) कश्मीरी | كشم | कॉशुर | كٲشُر   Kashmiri kashmiri | kâshmîrî IN
kat (*) ქართული | ქართული ენა kʰɑrtʰuli Georgian georgien | géorgien GE UTF-8
kaz (*) Қазақ | қазақша | Қазақ тілі | Qazaq tili | قازاق ٴتىلى qazaq Kazakh kazakh KZ UTF-8
kbd (*) къэбэрдеибзэ   Kabardian kabardien | kabardine RU
kca     Khanty RU
kcg     Tyap NG
kde     Makonde | Chimakonde TZ
kdr     Karaim | Karaite LT
kea Kabuverdianu   Capeverde Creole créole Capeverde CV
kfo     Koro | Jula CI
kfy     Kumauni IN
kha Khasi   Khasi khasi | khasî IN
khk (*) Монгол хэл | ᠮᠣᠨᠬᠣᠣᠷ | Монголоор | Монгол mɔngɔl Mongolian mongol MN
khm (*) ភាសាខ្មែរ | ខ្មែរ | ភាសាវឧួរ   Khmer khmer KH UTF-8
kik Gikũyũ   Kikuyu kikuyu | kikouyou | gikuyu KE
kim     Tofa | Karagas RU
kin (*) kinyaRwanda | Ikinyarwanda   Kinyarwanda rwanda RW
kir (*) Кыргыз | кыргызча | кыргыз тили kɯrgɯz Kirghiz | Kyrgyz kirghize KG ISO-8859-5
kjh (*)     Khakas RU
kjp     Karen-Pwo karen pwo | phlou MM
kmb     Kimbundu kimbundu | kiMboundou AO
kmr (*) kurmancî | kurdî   Kurdish | Kurmanji | Kirdasi, Turkey kurde TR ISO-8859-9
knc kanuri   Kanuri kanouri NG
kng (*) kiKongo   Kikongo | Koongo | Kongo kongo CD
knn (*) कोंकणी | ಕಒಂಕಣಇ   Konkani konkani | konkânî IN UTF-8
koi коми-пермяцкӧй кыв   Komi-Permyak kom permyak RU UTF-8
kor (*) 한국어 | 韓國語 hankugʌ Korean coréen KR EUC-KR
kos Kosrae   Kosraean kosrae | kusaien | kosraéen FM
kpv (*) коми кыв   Komi-Zyrian | Komi kom zyrian | komi RU ISO-8859-5
kpy     Koryak RU
kqn     Kaonde ZM
krc (*) тилкъарачай-малкъар | къарачай-малкъар тил   Karachay-balkar karatchaï balkar RU
krl     Karelian RU
kru     Kurukh kurukh IN
ksw     Karen-S'gaw karen s'gaw MM
kua oshikwanyama | kuanyama   Kuanyama kuanyama AO
kum (*) къумукъ тил   Kumyk koumyk RU ISO-8859-5
kut     Kutenai kutenai | kutenaï CA
lad (*) ג'ודיאו‮–‬איספאניי   Ladino (Israel) judéo-espagnol | ladino | judéo-espagnol IL
lam ChiLamba   Lamba lamba ZM
lao (*) ລາວ | ພາສາລາວ lá̱o | paːsaːlaːw Lao lao LA UTF-8
lat (*) Latine | Lingua latina   Latin latin VA
lav (*) Latviešu | Latviski | latviešu valoda latviɛʃu Latvian letton LV ISO-8859-4
lbe (*)     Lak RU
lez (*) лезги чІал   Lezghian lezghien RU ISO-8859-5
lhu Laˬhuˍ   Lahu lahu CN
lic     Hlai | Li (language of Li ethnic group in Hainan) CN UTF-8
lij (*) Líggűre | zeneize | zeneisei   Ligurian IT UTF-8
lim (*) Lèmburgs | Limburgs Plat   Limburgisch | Limburgs Plat | Limburgish limbourgeois NL
lin (*) lingara | lingála   Lingala lingala CD
lis Li-su   Lisu | Li lisu CN
lit (*) Lietuviškai | Lietuviskai | Lietuvos | Lietuvių kalba | Lietuvių liɛtuvoːs Lithuanian lithuanien | lituanien LT ISO-8859-4
liv (*)     Liv LV
liy     Banda, Bambari banda, Bambari CF
lkt Lakhota   Lakota sioux sioux lakota US
lld (*)     Ladin IT ISO-8859-1
lld.bad (*)     Ladin (Val di Badia) IT ISO-8859-1
lld.fas     Ladin (Val di Fassa) IT ISO-8859-1
lld.gar (*)     Ladin (Gardena) IT ISO-8859-1
lmo Lumbaart | lengua lumbarda   Lombard lombarde IT ISO-8859-1
lol     Mongo mongo CD
loz siLozi   Lozi lozi ZM
ltz (*) Lëtzebuergesch ˈlɛtsəˌbuʶjəʃ Luxembourgish luxembourgeois LU ISO-8859-1
lua     Luba-Lulua | Luba-Kasai luba-lulua CD
lub tshiluba   Luba-Katanga luba-katanga CD
lue chiLuvale   Luvale | Luena | Chiluvale ZM
lug (*) luGanda | LùGáànda   Ganda | Luganda ganda UG
lui     Luiseno luiseno US
lun chiLunda   Lunda lunda ZM
luo Dholuo   Luo | (Kenya and Tanzania) luo (Kenya et Tanzanie) KE
lus     Lushai lushai | lushaï IN
luy     Luyia KE
lzz ლაზური ნენა | Lazuri nena   Laz TR
mad     Madurese madourais | madurais ID
mag     Magahi magahi | magahî IN
mah ri-Majōl | kajin Majōl | Ebon   Marshall | Marshallese marshall | marshallais MH
mai मैथिली   Maithili maithili | maïthilî IN
mak     Makasar makassar ID
mal (*) മലയാളം malajaɭam Malayalam malayalam | malayâlam | malayî IN UTF-8
mar (*) मराठी   Marathi marathe | marathi | marâthî IN
mas Maa | ɔl Maa   Masai massaï | masai KE
mdf мокшень кяль   Moksha | Mordvin-Moksha moksha | moksa RU
mdr     Mandar mandar ID
men     Mende mendé SL
mfe (*)     Morisyen | Mauritius Creole French MU
mgh     Makhuwa-Meetto | Makua MZ
mhr (*) марий | марий йылме marij jəlme Mari (Lower) mari | tchérémisse RU ISO-8859-5
mia     Miami US
mic Míkmaw   Mikmaq | Micmac micmac CA
min     Minangkabau minangkabau ID
mjl     Himachali | Mandeali himachali mandeali IN
mkd (*) Македонски | македонски јазик makedonski Macedonian macédonien MK ISO-8859-5
mlq     Maninkakan (Western) | Malinke MA
mlt (*) bil-Malti | Malti malti Maltese maltais MT ISO-8859-3
mly (*) Bahasa Melayu bahasamelaju Malay | Bahasa Malay malais MY UTF-8
mnc     Manchu mandchou CN
mni बिष्नुप्रीय मणिपुरी   Manipuri manipuri | meitei | manipourî IN
mnk     Mandingo mandingue SN
mnp     Chinese, Min Bei (northern Fujian, Singapore) chinois, min bei CN
mns Маньси   Mansi RU
moh Kanien'keha   Mohawk mohawk CA
mos (*) Mòoré   Mossi moré BF
mri (*) te reo Māori   Maori maori NZ UTF-8
mrj марий йылме   Hill Mari | Western Mari mari RU ISO-8859-5
mup     Rajasthani | Malvi | Malwada (India) rajasthani | malvi IN
mus Maskoki | Mvskokē empunakv   Creek muskogee | creek US
muw     Mundari | Munda IN
mwl Mirandesa | Miranda do Douro | lhéngua mirandesa   Mirandese mirandais PT ISO-8859-1
mya (*) မ္ရန္မာ | ဗမာစကား myanmā | bámasákà Burmese | Myanmar birman MM
myv эрзянь кель   Erzya | Mordvin erza | erzya RU ISO-8859-5
mzn     Mazanderani IR
nan     Chinese, Minnan | Xiamen | Quanzhouhua | Hainanese (Southern Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, southern Zhejiang, southern Jiangxi) chinois, Min Nan CN
nan-tw 台文 | 台語 | 台灣話 dȁi vún | daiŋi Minnan Chinese | Taiwanese minnan chinois (Taiwan) TW BIG5
nan.hainan (*)     Hainanese | Minnan Chinese (Hainan/Qiongzhou dialect) CN UTF-8
nap Napolitano   Neapolitan-calabrese napolitain-calabrese IT ISO-8859-1
naq Namagowab   Nama NA
nau Ekakairũ Naoero   Nauru nauruan NR
nav Diné | Diné bizaad | Dinék'ehjí   Navajo navaho US ISO-8859-1
nbl (*) isiNdebele   Ndebele, South ndébélé du sud | ndébélé méridional ZA
nde isiNdebele   Ndebele, North ndébélé du nord ZW
ndo oshindonga | owambo   Ndonga ndonga NA
nds (*) Plattdüütsch | Nedderdüütsch | Neddersassisch   Low German | Low Saxon | Plattdeutsch bas allemand | bas saxon DE
nep (*) नेपाली nepaːli Nepali népalais NP
new नेपाल भाषा   Newari newari | néware | nepâlbhâsa NP
nga     Gbaya | Ngbaka (D.R. Congo) gbaya | ngbaka CD
ngu (*) nawatlahtolli | nāhuatl   Nahuatl-Guerrero nahuatl, guerrero MX
nhe     Nahuatl-Huasteca | Hidalgo, east nahuatl, hidalgo, est MX
nhw     Nahuatl-Huasteco | Tamazunchale, west nahuatl, tamazunchale, ouest MX
nia Li Niha   Nias nias ID
nij     Ngaju | Dayak (Kapuas) dayak ID
niu faka-Niue | ko e vagahau Niuē   Niuean niué | niouéen NU
niv     Nivkh | Gilyak RU
nld (*) Nederlands ˈneːdərlants Dutch hollandais | néerlandais NL ISO-8859-1
nno (*) norsk | norsk nynorsk | nynorsk   Nynorsk Norwegian | Norwegian norvégien nynorsk | norvégien NO ISO-8859-1
nob (*) Norsk | Norsk bokmål | Bokmål nurʃ Bokmal Norwegian | Norwegian norvégien | norvégien bokmal | norvégien littéraire NO ISO-8859-1
nog ногай тили   Nogai nogaï | nogaï, nogay RU
nso (*) sePêdi   Sotho, Northern | Pedi | Sepedi sotho du nord ZA
nya chiCheŵa | chinyanja   Chichewa | Nyanja | Chewa nyanja | chichewa | chewa MW
nym kinyamwezi   Nyamwezi nyamwezi TZ
nyn     Nyankole | Nyankore nyankolé UG
nyo runyoro   Nyoro nyoro UG
nzi     Nzima nzema GH
ojg     Ojibwa (eastern) CA
ori (*) ଓଡ଼ିଆ | ଓଡ଼ିଆ ɔiɽia Oriya oriya IN
osa Wazhazhe   Osage osage US
oss (*) ирон ӕвзаг   Ossetian | Ossetic ossète GE UTF-8
ote     Otomi Mezquital MX
otw ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ | ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯ ənɪʃɪnabɛ Ojibwa, Ottawa ojibwa ottawa CA
pag     Pangasinan pangasinan PH
pam Panpango | amanung kapampangan   Pampanga pampangan PH
pan (*) ਪੰਜਾਬੀ | पंजाबी pʊnʤɑbi Punjabi | Panjabi, eastern (India) | Gurmukhi pendjabi de l'est | panjâbî | pendjabi IN UTF-8
pap (*) Papiamentu   Papiamento papiamento AN ISO-8859-1
pau tekoi ra Belau   Palauan paluan | palau | palaosien PW
pbt (*) پښتو pɑʂtu Pashto, southern (Afghanistan) | Pushto pachto du sud | pachto AF UTF-8
pbu (*) پښتو pɑʂtu Pashto, northern (Pakistan) pachto PK UTF-8
pcc     Bouyei | Puyi CN
pcd     Picard FR
pdc     Pennsylvanian German/Dutch US
pdt     Tofa | Karagas CA
pes (*) ﯽﺳﺭﺎﻓ | فارسی | دری færsi Farsi | Parsi, western (Iran) | Persian persan IR UTF-8
pli पािळ   Pali pâli | pali IN UTF-8
plt (*) Malagasy fiteny   Malagasy (plateau) malgache MG ISO-8859-1
pms piemonteis   Piedmontese IT UTF-8
pnb ﺏﺎﺠﻨﭘ | پنجابي pʊnʤɑbi Panjabi, western (Pakistan) | Lahnda pendjabi PK UTF-8
pnt     Pontic Greek | Macedonian Greek GR ISO-8859-7
pol (*) Polski | język polski | polszczyzna polski Polish polonais PL ISO-8859-2
pon     Pohnpeian pohnpei FM
por (*) Português purtuˈgeːʃ Portuguese portugais PT ISO-8859-1
por-br (*) Português do Brasil purtuˈgeːʃ du braˈzjuː Brazilian Portuguese portugais du Brésil BR ISO-8859-1
pqm     Malecite-Passamaquoddy CA
prs (*) ﻯﺭﺩ | دری dari Farsi | Persian | Dari, eastern (Afghanistan) persan AF UTF-8
prv Occitan   Provençal | Occitan (post 1500) | Provencal occitan | provençal (après 1500) FR
pua     Purepecha | (western highland) MX
quy (*) Runa Simi | Quechua | Quichwa   Quechua quechua | langues quechuas PE
rap rapanui | pepito ote henua   Rapanui rapanui CL
rar Māori Kūki 'Āirani | reo ipukarea   Rarotongan rarotonga | rarotongien, maori des Îles Cook CK
rmc Romanes   Romany | Carpathian tsigane carpatiene CZ
rmf     Kale Romani | Kalo Finnish Romani FI
rmn     Romany | balkan tsigane balcan CS
rmo Romani šib   Romani (Sinte) | Romany tsigane | tzigane CS
rmw     Romani (Welsh) | Kalé GB
rmy (*) Romani   Romany | Vlax tsigane vlax RO
roh (*) Rumantsch ruˈmantʃ Raeto-Romance | Rhaeto-Romance rhétoroman CH
roh.gri (*)     Romansch (Grisons) CH
roh.len (*)     Romansch (lower Engadin) CH
roh.sur (*)     Romansch (Sursilvan) CH
roh.uen (*)     Romansch (upper Engadin) CH
ron (*) Româneşte | limba română | Română rɔmɨˈnɛʃtɛ | ˈlimba rɔmɨnə Romanian | Rumanian roumain RO ISO-8859-2
ron-md (*) молдовеняскэлимба лимба | Moldoveneşte | limba moldovenească mɔldɔvɛˈnɛʃtɛ Moldavian | Moldovan moldave MD ISO-8859-2
rue     Rusyn UA
run (*) kiRundi | íkiRǔndi   Rundi rundi | roundi BI
rup (*) Armãneashti | Armãneashce | Rrãmãneasht   Arumanian | Macedo-Rumanian | Aromanian aroumain, valaque, macédo-roumain | aroumain | macédo-roumain GR
rus (*) Русский | русский ˈruskij Russian russe RU ISO-8859-5
rwr     Marwari | Rajasthani-Marwari marwari | marwarî IN
s.ase     American sign language US UTF-8
sad     Sandawe sandawe TZ
sag (*) sängö | Yângâ tî Sängö   Sango sango CF ISO-8859-1
sah саха тыла   Yakut iakoute RU ISO-8859-5
sam     Samaritan Aramaic samaritain | araméen samaritain PS
san (*) संस्कृत | संस्कृतम् | संस्कृत भाषा   Sanskrit sanscrit | sanskrit IN UTF-8
sas     Sasak sasak ID
sat संथाली   Santali santal | santâlî IN
scn (*) Sicilianu | Siculo   Sicilian sicilien IT ISO-8859-1
sco (*) Lallans | Scoats leid   Scots écossais GB
sdc Susardu   Sardinian (Sassarese) sarde (sassarese) IT ISO-8859-1
sdh     Kurdish (southern) IR
sel шӧльӄумыт әты | селькуп   Selkup selkoupe RU
ses     Songhai songhai ML
shi     Tachelhit | Shilha (SW Morocco, Algeria) MA
shn     Shan chan | taï | shan MM
sid (*) Sidámo 'Afó   Sidamo sidamo ET
sin (*) සිංහල | ම඿඲ඹල | සිංහල   Sinhalese (Sri Lanka) singhalais LK
sjd     Kildin Sami FI ISO-8859-2
skr     Saraiki | Riasiti | Multani (Pakistan) saraiki PK
slk (*) Slovenčina | Slovensky | slovenský slɔvɛntʃina | slɔvɛnski Slovak slovaque SK ISO-8859-2
slv (*) Slovenščina slɔvɛnʃtʃina | slɔvɛnskɔ Slovenian | Slovene slovène SI ISO-8859-2
sma åarjelsaemiengïele | Sámi | saemien giele   Southern Sami sami du sud | sami méridional NO ISO-8859-2
sme (*) davvisámegiella | dávvisámegiella | Sámi | sámegiella   Northern Sami sami du nord NO ISO-8859-2
smj julevusámegiella   Lule Sami sami de Lule FI ISO-8859-2
smn aanaar kielâ | säämegiella   Saami-Inari | Inari Sami sami d’Inari FI ISO-8859-2
smo (*) Gagana Samoa   Samoan samoan WS
sms sää'mǩiõll   Saami-Kolta | Sami-Skolt | Skolt Sami sami skolt FI ISO-8859-2
sna chiShona   Shona shona ZW
snd (*) سنڗي   Sindhi sindhi | sindhî PK UTF-8
snk soninkanxaane   Soninke soninké ML
som (*) Soomaaliga | af Soomaali   Somali somali SO
sop     Songe | Kisongye CD
sot (*) seSotho   Sotho, Southern sotho du sud | sotho méridional LS
spa (*) Español | Castellano ɛspaɲɔl | kastɛˈʎanɔ Spanish espagnol ES ISO-8859-1
src (*)     Sardinian | Logudorese sarde | logudorese IT ISO-8859-1
srn Sranan   Sranan | Sranan Tongo sranan tongo SR
sro Susardu suˈʒardu | suˈʒadru Sardinian | Campidanese sarde | campidanese IT ISO-8859-1
srp (*) Српски | Srpski srpski Serbian serbe CS ISO-8859-5
srr     Serer sérère SN
ssw (*) siSwati   Swati | Swazi swati | siswati SZ
stq     Saterfriesisch DE
str     Salish | Straits | Saanich CA
suk     Sukuma sukuma TZ
sun basa Sunda   Sundanese soundanais ID
sus     Susu soussou GN
swb     Comorian KM
swe (*) Svenska ˈsveːnʂɑː Swedish suédois SE ISO-8859-1
swg     Swabian DE
swh (*) kiSwahili   Swahili swahili TZ UTF-8
syc ܣܘܪܝܝܐ | ܠܫܵܢܵܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ   Syriac syriaque TR UTF-8
tab (*) табасаран чIал   Tabassaran RU
tah (*) te reo Tahiti | te reo Māʼohi   Tahitian tahitien PF
tam (*) தமிழ் t̪ʌmiɹ Tamil tamoul IN
taq تَمَاشَقْ   Tamashek | Kidal (Mali) tamacheq (mali) ML
tat (*) Татар | татарча | tatar tele | تاتارچا   Tatar tatare | tatar RU ISO-8859-5
tcy     Tulu IN
tdd ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ   Tai Nua | Dai Kong (Chinese Dai/Shan) CN UTF-8
tel (*) తెలుగు telugu Telugu telugu | télougou IN
tem     Timne | Themne temne SL
ter     Tereno tereno BR
tet (*) tetun | lia-tetun   Tetum tetum ID
tgk (*) Таҷикй | Таджик | тоҷикӣ | toçikī | تاجيكي   Tajik tadjik TJ UTF-8
tgl (*) Tagalog | ᜋᜄ᜔ᜆᜄᜎᜓᜄ᜔ tɑgɑlog | magtɑgɑlog Tagalog tagalog PH UTF-8
tha (*) ไทย | ภาษาไทย pʰaːsaːtaj Thai | Siamese | Central Thai thaï TH ISO-8859-11
tig (*) ትግረ | Tigré | Khasa   Tigre tigré ER
tir (*) ትግርኛ təgərəña Tigrinya tigrigna ET
tiv     Tiv tiv NG
tkl     Tokelau tokélau | tokelauan TK
tli Lingít   Tlingit tlingit US
tly (*)     Talysh AZ
tmr (*) בְּאַרָמִית | לשנא ארמיא   Aramaic araméen IL UTF-8
tog chiTonga   Tonga (Nyasa) tonga (Nyasa) | tongan (Nyasa) MW
ton (*) faka-Tonga | lea fakatonga   Tonga (Tonga Islands) | Tongan tonga | tongan (Îles Tonga) TO
tos     Totonac | (Highland) MX
tpi (*) Tok Pisin   Tok Pisin tok pisin PG
tsi     Tsimshian tsimshian CA
tsn (*) seTswana   Tswana tswana | setswana BW
tso xiTsonga   Tsonga tsonga ZA
ttq     Tamashek-Tawallammat | Tawallamat (Niger) tamacheq | niger NE
tts     Thai, northeastern | Isan thaï TH ISO-8859-11
ttt     Tat | Muslim Tat | Tati AZ
tuk (*) türkmençe | түркmенче | түркмен дили   Turkmen turkmène TM ISO-8859-9
tum chiTumbuka   Tumbuka tumbuka MW
tur (*) Türkçe ˈtyrktʃɛ Turkish turc TR ISO-8859-9
tur.ota   ˈtyrktʃɛ Ottoman Turkish | (arabic script) turc ottoman (1500-1928) TR ISO-8859-6
tvl Te 'gana Tūvalu   Tuvalu tuvalu | tuvaluan TV
tyv (*) тыва дыл   Tuvinian touva RU
tzm (*) Tamazight   Tamazight | Berber MA
tzz     Tzotzil | (Zinacantán) MX
udm (*) удмурт кыл   Udmurt oudmourte RU
uig (*) ﺋۇيغۇر | Уйғур   Uighur | Uyghur ouïgour CN UTF-8
ukr (*) Українська ukrajinsʹkoyu Ukrainian ukrainien UA ISO-8859-5
umb     Umbundu umbundu AO
unm Lënape   Delaware Unami | Lenape delaware unami US
urd (*) اردو | اُردو urdu Urdu ourdou PK ISO-8859-6
uzn (*) Ўзбек | اۉزبېک | ўзбек тили ozbek Uzbek, northern | Uzbek ouzbek UZ ISO-8859-5
vai     Vai vaï LR
vec veneto   Venetian IT ISO-8859-1
ven tshiVenḓa   Venda venda ZA
vep     Veps | Vepsian RU
vie (*) Tiếng Việt tiéŋvièˀt Vietnamese vietnamien VN VISCII
vls Vlaams   Flemish | Vlaams Flamand BE ISO-8859-1
vor (*) võro kiilʼ   Voro NG
vot Vadjaa tšeeli   Votic vote RU
wal (*) ወላይታቱ   Walamo walamo ET
war Wáray-Wáray | Winaray   Waray waray PH
was     Washo washo US
wln (*) Walon   Walloon wallon FR UTF-8
wol (*) Wollof   Wolof wolof SN
wuu     Chinese, Wu (Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai..) chinois, wu CN
x.akk akkadû   Akkadian | Babylonian akkadien IQ UTF-8
x.ang     Old English (ca.450-1100) anglo-saxon (vers 450-1100) GB UTF-8
x.cmg     Classical Mongolian MN UTF-8
x.cmn 文言   Classical Chinese | Literary Chinese CN UTF-8
x.egy     Egyptian (Ancient) égyptien (ancien) EG UTF-8
x.elx     Elamite élamite UTF-8
x.emy     Epigraphic Mayan MX UTF-8
x.enm     Middle English anglais moyen (1100-1500) GB UTF-8
x.ett     Etruscan IT UTF-8
x.frm     Middle French français moyen (1400-1600) | français moyen (ca.1400-1600) FR UTF-8
x.hit     Hittite hittite UTF-8
x.non (*) norskr   Old Norse vieux norrois NO UTF-8
x.och     Old chinese CN UTF-8
x.omn     Minoan GR UTF-8
x.pal     Pahlavi pahlavi
x.phn     Phoenician phénicien LB UTF-8
x.pmh     Maharastri Prakrit | Māhārāṣṭrī Prākrit | Dākṣinātyā IN UTF-8
x.pro     Old Provençal (until 1500) provençal ancien (jusqu'à 1500) | vieux provençal (jusqu’à 1500) FR
x.sux     Sumerian sumérien IQ UTF-8
x.xcl     Classical Armenian AM UTF-8
x.xct     Classical Tibetan CN UTF-8
x.xmk     Ancient Macedonian GR UTF-8
xal хальмг келн   Kalmyk-Oirat kalmouk RU
xho (*) isiXhosa   Xhosa xhosa ZA
xpe     Kpelle, Liberia kpellé, liberia LR
xsl ᑌᓀ ᒐ   Slave | Slavey (Athapascan), south esclave (athapascan) sud | slave (athapascan) CA
xst     Gurage (East: Enneqor, Silti, Ulbarag, Wolane) ET
xwg (*) ייִדיש | ײִדיש | מאַמע לשון ˈjidiʃ Yiddish yiddish ET UTF-8
yao chiYao   Yao yao MW
yap     Yapese yapois FM
yor (*) Yorùbá jōrùbá Yoruba yoruba NG ISO-8859-1
yrk     Nenets RU
yua     Maya, Yucatán MX
yue (*) 粤语 | 广东话 yut yű | kwɔ́ŋdɔ́ŋwá Chinese, Yue | Yuet Yue | Cantonese chinois cantonais CN GB2312
yue.t (*) 粵語 | 廣東話 yut yű | kwɔ́ŋdɔ́ŋwá Chinese, Yue | Yuet Yue | Cantonese (Hong Kong) chinois cantonais (Hong Kong) BIG5-HKSCS
zai     Zapotec | Istmo zapotèque, istmo MX
zam Zapoteco   Zapotec | Miahuatlan, central zapotèque, miahuatlan MX
zen     Zenaga zenaga MR
zne paZande   Zande zandé CD
zul (*) isiZulu   Zulu zoulou ZA
zun Shiwi   Zuni zuni US

 
 
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First appearance: Fri Feb 14 00:28:31 GMT 2003 - | - Last modified: Sun Mar 3 16:33:00 CET 2013
MGclamp | clinch (device that holds things firmly together)